SCaml, Smart Contract Abstract Machine Language

Small and Simple Strict Subset of OCaml for Smart contracts.

Strict subset of OCaml

SCaml is a strict subset of OCaml programming language.
All the valid SCaml programs are also valid as OCaml programs.
This immediately leads to the following benefits:

  • Many OCaml programming tools, such as Merlin, Tuareg, OCamlFormat, PPX'es, etc can be used for SCaml for free.

  • SCaml programs should be compilable by OCaml to native executables with an appropriate library, which can simulate their behavior. It will also open a door to write a dApp consists both of on-chain and off-chain programs in one language. It is even possible to port a code in smart contracts to Tezos protocol for speed.

  • OCaml programmers can start writing SCaml programs immediately. New comers can learn SCaml through existing OCaml language tutorials and references.

  • Researchers can use SCaml for bases of their research prototypes.


The following OCaml features are not supported:


Michelson has no recursion opcode. Therefore neither for SCaml: no let rec construct.

Map/iter/folding over lists, sets, maps and big maps are supported.
Loop.left is also available to uses LOOP Michelson opcode.


Michelson is monomorphic language. So is SCaml.

If you need polymorphism, copy the definition and instantiate for each type.

You may have to add type constraints to your SCaml programs when expressions have too general types.

Separate compilation

A contract must be written in one file.


  • Modules.

  • Labeled functions.

  • Partial application of primitives defined in SCaml.

  • Side effects: reference, mutable record fields, arrays.

  • Exceptions.

  • Classes, and objects.

Unsupported features of Michelson for now

Validity checks of string representations of addresses, keys, key hashes and signatures

Michelson type-checker must be used to detect invalid string based literals.


Parsing by OCaml

Parsing is done by the original OCaml parser.

Typing by OCaml

Typing is done by the original OCaml type checker.
It uses module SCaml which defines primitive values and types for Michelson.

SCaml typing

An additional small typing phase to enforce the types of the entry points
to be 'parameter -> 'storage -> (SCaml.operation list, 'storage)

It will also try forcing the typing of SCaml.self.

Conversion to IML

Typed OCaml AST is converted to InterMediate Laguage IML.
IML is a simple typed purely functional language.

Most of the unsupported features of OCaml are rejected here.

Pattern matches are decomposed to simple switches in this phase.

Compilation to Michelson

IML AST is compiled down to Michelson.
It is a trivial compilation from FP to stack VM.


Under src/tests/

Library functions are listed in src/lib/SCaml.mli.

1.1 Salting (2020-03-04, released)

1.1 "Salting" fixed bugs of 1.0 Pyramid and support the coming upgrade of Tezos 006 Carthage.

1.0 Pyramid (2020-01-01, released)

"Pyramid" will be the first official release of SCaml.

Pyramid is a big feature close. After it, we concentrate on the maintenance
for a while.


1.2 Fortune Telling

1.2 "Fortune Telling" will support the next protocol upgrade of Tezos.

Further information

Look documents under docs/.

03 Oct 2022
Reverse Dependencies