package ppx_fields_conv

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Generation of accessor and iteration functions for ocaml records

Install

Dune Dependency

Authors

Maintainers

Sources

v0.17.0.tar.gz
sha256=f22ce415852181fbea91b344f4ce4dcddbfab584741924d21ad78db25eb8e16a

Description

Part of the Jane Street's PPX rewriters collection.

Published: 23 May 2024

README

ppx_fields_conv

Generation of accessor and iteration functions for ocaml records.

ppx_fields_conv is a ppx rewriter that can be used to define:

  • first-class values representing record fields

  • additional functions to:

    • get and set record fields

    • iterate and fold over all fields of a record

    • create new record values

Basic Usage

One common use of ppx_fields_conv is to derive accessor functions on record types. For example, one can derive getters on the following simple record type:

type t = {
  dir : [ `Buy | `Sell ];
  quantity : int;
  price : float;
  mutable cancelled : bool;
} [@@deriving fields ~getters]

Which produces functions with the following signatures:

val cancelled : t -> bool
val price     : t -> float
val quantity  : t -> int
val dir       : t -> [ `Buy | `Sell ]

Selecting definitions

The [@@deriving fields] clause accepts selectors specifying which definitions it should provide. Use ~getters and ~setters to explicitly select toplevel accessors, ~fields to select Field.t values, and ~names to select Fields.names. Use ~iterators with a tuple containing names chosen from create, make_creator, and so on, to select elements of Fields. Use ~direct_iterators with a tuple of names to select elements of Fields.Direct. For example:

type t = { x : int; y : int }
[@@deriving fields ~getters ~fields ~iterators:(fold, iter)]

The above defines the accessors x and y, the field values Fields.x and Fields.y, Fields.fold, and Fields.iter.

By default, [@@deriving fields] with no selectors derives all of the functions below except Fields.fold_right and Direct_iterator.fold_right. This behavior can be changed with the -deriving-fields-require-selectors command-line argument, which currently defaults to false. Passing true instead causes [@@derving fields] with no selectors to produce an error during preprocessing.

Implicitly-selected definitions

The definitions of several of these functions depend on the getters, setters, and fields definitions. As a result, some of their dependencies might be derived in *.ml files, even if they were not explicitly indicated in the selector list. Specifically, in structures (and in the toplevel of *.ml files):

  • [@@deriving fields ~fields] also derives the functions under ~getters and ~setters

  • [@@deriving fields ~iterators:_] and [@@deriving fields ~direct_iterators:_] (for any legal arguments to iterators and direct_iterators; see below) also derives ~fields (which transitively derives ~getters and ~setters)

It's fine to use these "free" derived functions in the *.ml. However, to expose them in *.mlis, one must explicitly include them in the selector list, since [@@deriving fields], when used in signatures, only derives declarations for exactly the requested functions (and not their dependencies).

Full list of selectors

The full list of permitted selectors and the signatures of the corresponding functions follows:

type t = {
  dir : [ `Buy | `Sell ];
  quantity : int;
  price : float;
  mutable cancelled : bool;
} [@@deriving
    fields
      ~getters
      ~setters
      ~names
      ~fields
      ~iterators:
        ( create
        , make_creator
        , exists
        , fold
        , fold_right
        , for_all
        , iter
        , map
        , to_list
        , map_poly )
      ~direct_iterators:
        (exists, fold, fold_right, for_all, iter, map, to_list, set_all_mutable_fields)]

then code will be generated for functions of the following type:

(* getters *)
val cancelled : t -> bool
val price     : t -> float
val quantity  : t -> int
val dir       : t -> [ `Buy | `Sell ]

(* setters *)
val set_cancelled : t -> bool -> unit

(* higher order fields and functions over all fields *)
module Fields : sig

  val names : string list

  val cancelled : (t, bool            ) Field.t
  val price     : (t, float           ) Field.t
  val quantity  : (t, int             ) Field.t
  val dir       : (t, [ `Buy | `Sell ]) Field.t

  val create
    :  dir:[ `Buy | `Sell ]
    -> quantity  : int
    -> price     : float
    -> cancelled : bool
    -> t

  val make_creator
    :  dir:      ((t, [ `Buy | `Sell ]) Field.t -> 'a -> ('arg -> [ `Buy | `Sell ]) * 'b)
    -> quantity: ((t, int             ) Field.t -> 'b -> ('arg -> int             ) * 'c)
    -> price:    ((t, float           ) Field.t -> 'c -> ('arg -> float           ) * 'd)
    -> cancelled:((t, bool            ) Field.t -> 'd -> ('arg -> bool            ) * 'e)
    -> 'a -> ('arg -> t) * 'e

  val fold
    :  init:'a
    -> dir      :('a -> (t, [ `Buy | `Sell ]) Field.t -> 'b)
    -> quantity :('b -> (t, int             ) Field.t -> 'c)
    -> price    :('c -> (t, float           ) Field.t -> 'd)
    -> cancelled:('d -> (t, bool            ) Field.t -> 'e)
    -> 'e

  val fold_right
    :  dir      :((t, [ `Buy | `Sell ]) Field.t -> 'd -> 'e)
    -> quantity :((t, int             ) Field.t -> 'c -> 'd)
    -> price    :((t, float           ) Field.t -> 'b -> 'c)
    -> cancelled:((t, bool            ) Field.t -> 'a -> 'b)
    -> init:'a
    -> 'e

  val map
    :  dir      :((t, [ `Buy | `Sell ]) Field.t -> [ `Buy | `Sell ])
    -> quantity :((t, int             ) Field.t -> int)
    -> price    :((t, float           ) Field.t -> float)
    -> cancelled:((t, bool            ) Field.t -> bool)
    -> t

  val iter
    :  dir      :((t, [ `Buy | `Sell ]) Field.t -> unit)
    -> quantity :((t, int             ) Field.t -> unit)
    -> price    :((t, float           ) Field.t -> unit)
    -> cancelled:((t, bool            ) Field.t -> unit)
    -> unit

  val for_all
    :  dir      :((t, [ `Buy | `Sell ]) Field.t -> bool)
    -> quantity :((t, int             ) Field.t -> bool)
    -> price    :((t, float           ) Field.t -> bool)
    -> cancelled:((t, bool            ) Field.t -> bool)
    -> bool

  val exists
    :  dir      :((t, [ `Buy | `Sell ]) Field.t -> bool)
    -> quantity :((t, int             ) Field.t -> bool)
    -> price    :((t, float           ) Field.t -> bool)
    -> cancelled:((t, bool            ) Field.t -> bool)
    -> bool

  val to_list
    :  dir      :((t, [ `Buy | `Sell ]) Field.t -> 'a)
    -> quantity :((t, int             ) Field.t -> 'a)
    -> price    :((t, float           ) Field.t -> 'a)
    -> cancelled:((t, bool            ) Field.t -> 'a)
    -> 'a list

  val map_poly : ([< `Read | `Set_and_create ], t, 'a) Field.user -> 'a list

  (** Functions that take a record directly *)
  module Direct : sig

      val fold
        :  t
        -> init:'a
        -> dir      :('a -> (t, [ `Buy | `Sell ]) Field.t -> t -> [ `Buy | `Sell ] -> 'b)
        -> quantity :('b -> (t, int             ) Field.t -> t -> int              -> 'c)
        -> price    :('c -> (t, float           ) Field.t -> t -> float            -> 'd)
        -> cancelled:('d -> (t, bool            ) Field.t -> t -> bool             -> 'e)
        -> 'e

      val fold_right
        :  t
        -> dir      :((t, [ `Buy | `Sell ]) Field.t -> t -> [ `Buy | `Sell ] -> 'd -> 'e)
        -> quantity :((t, int             ) Field.t -> t -> int              -> 'c -> 'd)
        -> price    :((t, float           ) Field.t -> t -> float            -> 'b -> 'c)
        -> cancelled:((t, bool            ) Field.t -> t -> bool             -> 'a -> 'b)
        -> init:'a
        -> 'e

      val map
        :  t
        -> dir      :((t, [ `Buy | `Sell ]) Field.t -> t -> [ `Buy | `Sell ] -> [ `Buy | `Sell ])
        -> quantity :((t, int             ) Field.t -> t -> int              -> int)
        -> price    :((t, float           ) Field.t -> t -> float            -> float)
        -> cancelled:((t, bool            ) Field.t -> t -> bool             -> bool)
        -> t

      val iter
        :  t
        -> dir      :((t, [ `Buy | `Sell ]) Field.t -> t -> [ `Buy | `Sell ] -> unit)
        -> quantity :((t, int             ) Field.t -> t -> int              -> unit)
        -> price    :((t, float           ) Field.t -> t -> float            -> unit)
        -> cancelled:((t, bool            ) Field.t -> t -> bool             -> unit)
        -> unit

      val for_all
        :  t
        -> dir      :((t, [ `Buy | `Sell ]) Field.t -> t -> [ `Buy | `Sell ] -> bool)
        -> quantity :((t, int             ) Field.t -> t -> int              -> bool)
        -> price    :((t, float           ) Field.t -> t -> float            -> bool)
        -> cancelled:((t, bool            ) Field.t -> t -> bool             -> bool)
        -> bool

      val exists
        :  t
        -> dir      :((t, [ `Buy | `Sell ]) Field.t -> t -> [ `Buy | `Sell ] -> bool)
        -> quantity :((t, int             ) Field.t -> t -> int              -> bool)
        -> price    :((t, float           ) Field.t -> t -> float            -> bool)
        -> cancelled:((t, bool            ) Field.t -> t -> bool             -> bool)
        -> bool

      val to_list
        :  t
        -> dir      :((t, [ `Buy | `Sell ]) Field.t -> t -> [ `Buy | `Sell ] -> 'a)
        -> quantity :((t, int             ) Field.t -> t -> int              -> 'a)
        -> price    :((t, float           ) Field.t -> t -> float            -> 'a)
        -> cancelled:((t, bool            ) Field.t -> t -> bool             -> 'a)
        -> 'a list

      val set_all_mutable_fields : local_ t -> cancelled:bool -> unit
    end

end

Use of [@@deriving fields] in an *.mli will extend the signature for functions with the above types; In an *.ml, definitions will be generated.

Field.t is defined in Fieldslib, including:

type ('perm, 'record, 'field) t_with_perm

type ('record, 'field) t = ([ `Read | `Set_and_create], 'record, 'field) t_with_perm

val name : (_, _, _) t_with_perm -> string
val get  : (_, 'r, 'a) t_with_perm -> 'r -> 'a

Functions over all fields

Use of the generated functions together with Fieldslib allow us to define functions over t which check exhaustiveness w.r.t record fields, avoiding common semantic errors which can occur when a record is extended with new fields but we forget to update functions.

For example if you are writing a custom equality operator to ignore small price differences:

let ( = ) a b : bool =
  let use op = fun field ->
    op (Field.get field a) (Field.get field b)
  in
  let price_equal p1 p2 = Float.abs (p1 -. p2) < 0.001 in
  Fields.for_all
    ~dir:(use (=)) ~quantity:(use (=))
    ~price:(use price_equal) ~cancelled:(use (=))
;;

A type error would occur if you were to add a new field and not change the definition of ( = ):

type t = {
  dir : [ `Buy | `Sell ];
  quantity : int;
  price : float;
  mutable cancelled : bool;
  symbol : string;
} [@@deriving fields ~iterators:(for_all, fold)]

...
Error: This expression has type
         symbol:(([< `Read | `Set_and_create ], t, string) Field.t_with_perm ->
                 bool) ->
         bool
       but an expression was expected of type bool

Or similarly you could use fold to create to_string function:

let to_string t =
  let conv to_s = fun acc f ->
    (sprintf "%s: %s" (Field.name f) (to_s (Field.get f t))) :: acc
  in
  let fs =
    Fields.fold ~init:[]
      ~dir:(conv (function `Buy -> "Buy" | `Sell -> "Sell"))
      ~quantity:(conv Int.to_string)
      ~price:(conv Float.to_string)
      ~cancelled:(conv Bool.to_string)
  in
  String.concat fs ~sep:", "
;;

Addition of a new field would cause a type error reminding you to update the definition of to_string.

Dependencies (5)

  1. ppxlib >= "0.28.0"
  2. dune >= "3.11.0"
  3. fieldslib >= "v0.17" & < "v0.18"
  4. base >= "v0.17" & < "v0.18"
  5. ocaml >= "5.1.0"

Dev Dependencies

None

Used by (20)

  1. ask
  2. ask-integrator
  3. base_quickcheck >= "v0.17.0"
  4. bin_prot >= "v0.17.0"
  5. bio_io >= "0.5.1"
  6. cohttp >= "0.20.1" & < "4.0.0"
  7. conformist < "0.2.1"
  8. cookies
  9. frenetic >= "5.0.0" & < "5.0.5"
  10. ibx >= "0.8.1"
  11. learn-ocaml-client >= "0.13.0"
  12. oci
  13. opium >= "0.15.0" & < "0.19.0"
  14. opium_kernel
  15. ppx_bap < "v0.14.0"
  16. ppx_jane >= "v0.17.0"
  17. ppx_log >= "v0.17.0"
  18. sihl < "0.2.0" | >= "0.3.0~rc2"
  19. sihl-core
  20. zanuda

Conflicts

None

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