package kcas

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Software transactional memory based on lock-free multi-word compare-and-set


Dune Dependency






Published: 24 May 2023


API reference · (The Tx API was removed in version 0.3.0 — see API reference for version 0.2.4. The API was redesigned in version 0.2.0 — see API reference for version 0.1.8.)

kcas — STM based on lock-free MCAS

kcas provides a software transactional memory (STM) implementation based on an atomic lock-free multi-word compare-and-set (MCAS) algorithm enhanced with read-only compare operations and ability to block awaiting for changes.

kcas_data provides compositional lock-free data structures and primitives for communication and synchronization implemented using kcas.

Features and properties:

  • Efficient: In the common uncontended case only k + 1 single-word CASes are required per k-CAS.

  • Lock-free: The underlying algorithm guarantees that at least one domain will be able to make progress.

  • Disjoint-access parallel: Unrelated operations progress independently, without interference, even if they occur at the same time.

  • Read-only compares: The algorithm supports obstruction-free read-only compare (CMP) operations that can be performed on overlapping locations in parallel without interference.

  • Blocking await: The algorithm supports awaiting for changes to any number of shared memory locations.

  • Composable: Independently developed transactions can be composed with ease.

kcas is published on opam and is distributed under the ISC license.


A quick tour

To use the library

# #require "kcas"
# open Kcas

one first creates shared memory locations:

# let a = Loc.make 0
  and b = Loc.make 0
  and x = Loc.make 0
val a : int Loc.t = <abstr>
val b : int Loc.t = <abstr>
val x : int Loc.t = <abstr>

One can then manipulate the locations individually:

# Loc.set a 6
- : unit = ()
# Loc.get a
- : int = 6

Attempt primitive operations over multiple locations:

# Op.atomically [
    Op.make_cas a 6 10;
    Op.make_cas b 0 52
- : bool = true

Block waiting for changes to locations:

# let a_domain = Domain.spawn @@ fun () ->
    let x = Loc.get_as (fun x -> Retry.unless (x <> 0); x) x in
    Printf.sprintf "The answer is %d!" x
val a_domain : string Domain.t = <abstr>

Perform transactions over locations:

# let tx ~xt =
    let a = Xt.get ~xt a
    and b = Xt.get ~xt b in
    Xt.set ~xt x (b - a)
  Xt.commit { tx }
- : unit = ()

And now we have it:

# Domain.join a_domain
- : string = "The answer is 42!"


The API of kcas is divided into submodules. The main modules are

  • Loc, providing an abstraction of shared memory locations,

  • Xt, providing explicit transaction log passing over shared memory locations, and

  • Op, providing an interface for primitive operations over multiple shared memory locations.

The following sections discuss each of the above in turn.

Creating and manipulating individual shared memory locations

The Loc module is essentially compatible with the Stdlib Atomic module, except that a number of functions take some optional arguments that one usually need not worry about.

In other words, an application that uses Atomic, but then needs to perform atomic operations over multiple atomic locations, could theoretically just rebind module Atomic = Loc and then use the Op, and/or Xt APIs to perform operations over multiple locations. This should not be done just-in-case, however, as, even though kcas is efficient, it does naturally have higher overhead than the Stdlib Atomic.

Programming with transactions

The Xt module provides an API that allows transactions over shared memory locations to be implemented as functions that explicitly pass a mutable transaction log, as the labeled argument ~xt, through the computation to record accesses of shared memory locations. Once the transaction function returns, those accesses can then be attempted to be performed atomically. The Xt API is intended to be suitable for both designing and implementing new lock-free algorithms and as an application level programming interface for compositional use of such algorithms.

A transactional lock-free stack

As our first example of using transactions, let's implement a lock-free stack. A stack can be just a shared memory location that holds a list of elements:

type 'a stack = 'a list Loc.t

To create a stack we just make a new location with an empty list:

# let stack () : _ stack = Loc.make []
val stack : unit -> 'a stack = <fun>

To push an element to a stack we modify the stack to cons the element onto the list:

# let push ~xt stack element =
    Xt.modify ~xt stack @@ List.cons element
val push : xt:'a Xt.t -> 'b list Loc.t -> 'b -> unit = <fun>

Notice the ~xt parameter. It refers to the transaction log being passed explicitly. Above we pass it to modify to record an operation in the log rather than perform it immediately.

Popping an element from a stack is a little more complicated as we need to handle the case of an empty stack. Let's go with a basic approach where we first get the content of the stack, and set it if necessary, and return an optional element.

# let try_pop ~xt stack =
    match Xt.get ~xt stack with
    | [] -> None
    | element :: rest ->
      Xt.set ~xt stack rest;
      Some element
val try_pop : xt:'a Xt.t -> 'b list Loc.t -> 'b option = <fun>

Again, try_pop passes the ~xt parameter explicitly to the get and set operations to record them in the log rather than perform them immediately.

We could also implement try_pop more concisely with the help of a couple of useful list manipulation helper functions

# let hd_opt = function
    | [] -> None
    | element :: _ -> Some element
val hd_opt : 'a list -> 'a option = <fun>
# let tl_safe = function
    | [] -> []
    | _ :: rest -> rest
val tl_safe : 'a list -> 'a list = <fun>

and update:

# let try_pop ~xt stack =
    Xt.update ~xt stack tl_safe |> hd_opt
val try_pop : xt:'a Xt.t -> 'b list Loc.t -> 'b option = <fun>

If the stack already contained an empty list, [], both of the above variations of try_pop generate a read-only CMP operation in the obstruction_free mode. This means that multiple domains may run try_pop on an empty stack in parallel without interference. The variation using update also makes only a single access to the underlying transaction log and is likely to be the faster variation.

So, to use a stack, we first need to create it and then we may commit transactions to push and try_pop elements:

# let a_stack : int stack = stack ()
val a_stack : int stack = <abstr>
# Xt.commit { tx = push a_stack 101 }
- : unit = ()
# Xt.commit { tx = try_pop a_stack }
- : int option = Some 101
# Xt.commit { tx = try_pop a_stack }
- : int option = None

The { tx = ... } wrapper is used to ensure that the transaction function is polymorphic with respect to the log. This way the type system makes it difficult to accidentally leak the log as described in the paper Lazy Functional State Threads.

As an astute reader you may wonder why we wrote push and try_pop to take a transaction log as a parameter and then separately called commit rather than call just call commit inside the push and try_pop functions and avoid exposing the ~xt parameter. We'll get to that soon!

A transactional lock-free queue

Let's then implement a lock-free queue. To keep things simple we just use the traditional two-stack queue data structure:

type 'a queue = {
  front: 'a list Loc.t;
  back: 'a list Loc.t

To create a queue we make the two locations:

# let queue () = {
    front = Loc.make [];
    back = Loc.make []
val queue : unit -> 'a queue = <fun>

To enqueue we just modify the back of the queue and cons the element to the list:

# let enqueue ~xt queue element =
    Xt.modify ~xt queue.back @@ List.cons element
val enqueue : xt:'a Xt.t -> 'b queue -> 'b -> unit = <fun>

Dequeue is again more complicated. First we examine the front of the queue. If there is an element, we update the front and return the element. If the front is empty, we examine the back of the queue in reverse. If there is an element we clear the back, move the rest of the elements to the front, and return the element. Otherwise we return None as the queue was empty.

# let try_dequeue ~xt queue =
    match Xt.update ~xt queue.front tl_safe with
    | element :: _ -> Some element
    | [] ->
      match ~xt queue.back [] |> List.rev with
      | [] -> None
      | element :: rest ->
        Xt.set ~xt queue.front rest;
        Some element
val try_dequeue : xt:'a Xt.t -> 'b queue -> 'b option = <fun>

Above, update and exchange are used as convenient shorthands and to reduce the number of accesses to the transaction log. If both the front and back locations already contained an empty list, [], the above generates read-only CMP operations in the obstruction_free mode allowing multiple domains to run try_dequeue on an empty queue in parallel without interference. Additionally, if the back contained only one element, no write to the front is generated.

So, to use a queue, we first need to create it and then we may commit transactions to enqueue and try_dequeue elements:

# let a_queue : int queue = queue ()
val a_queue : int queue = {front = <abstr>; back = <abstr>}
# Xt.commit { tx = enqueue a_queue 76 }
- : unit = ()
# Xt.commit { tx = try_dequeue a_queue }
- : int option = Some 76
# Xt.commit { tx = try_dequeue a_queue }
- : int option = None
Composing transactions

The main benefit of the Xt API over the Op API is that transactions are composable. In fact, we already wrote transactions that recorded multiple primitive shared memory accesses to the explicitly passed transaction log. Nothing prevents us from writing transactions calling other non-primitive transactions.

For example, one can write a transaction to push multiple elements to a transactional stack atomically:

# let tx ~xt =
    push ~xt a_stack 3;
    push ~xt a_stack 1;
    push ~xt a_stack 4
  Xt.commit { tx }
- : unit = ()

Or transfer elements between different transactional data structures:

# let tx ~xt =
    match try_pop ~xt a_stack with
    | Some element ->
      enqueue ~xt a_queue element
    | None ->
  Xt.commit { tx }
- : unit = ()

The ability to compose transactions allows algorithms and data-structures to be used for a wider variety of purposes.

Blocking transactions

All of the previous operations we have implemented on stacks and queues have been non-blocking. What if we'd like to wait for an element to appear in a stack? One could write a loop that keeps on trying to pop an element

# let rec busy_waiting_pop stack =
    match Xt.commit { tx = try_pop stack } with
    | None -> busy_waiting_pop stack
    | Some elem -> elem
val busy_waiting_pop : 'a list Loc.t -> 'a = <fun>

but this sort of busy-wait is usually a bad idea and should be avoided. It is usually better to block in such a way that the underlying domain can potentially perform other work.

To support blocking kcas provides a later operation that amounts to raising a Later exception signaling that the operation, whether a single location operation or a multi location transaction, should be retried only after the shared memory locations examined by the operation have been modified outside of the transaction.

Using later we can easily write blocking pop

# let pop ~xt stack =
    match try_pop ~xt stack with
    | None -> Retry.later ()
    | Some elem -> elem
val pop : xt:'a Xt.t -> 'b list Loc.t -> 'b = <fun>

and dequeue

# let dequeue ~xt queue =
    match try_dequeue ~xt queue with
    | None -> Retry.later ()
    | Some elem -> elem
val dequeue : xt:'a Xt.t -> 'b queue -> 'b = <fun>


To test them out, let's create a fresh stack and a queue

# let a_stack : int stack = stack ()
val a_stack : int stack = <abstr>
# let a_queue : int queue = queue ()
val a_queue : int queue = {front = <abstr>; back = <abstr>}

and then spawn a domain that tries to atomically both pop and dequeue:

# let a_domain = Domain.spawn @@ fun () ->
    let tx ~xt = (pop ~xt a_stack, dequeue ~xt a_queue) in
    let (popped, dequeued) = Xt.commit { tx } in
    Printf.sprintf "I popped %d and dequeued %d!"
      popped dequeued
val a_domain : string Domain.t = <abstr>

The domain is now blocked waiting for changes to the stack and the queue. As long as we don't populate both at the same time

# Xt.commit { tx = push a_stack 2 };
  let x = Xt.commit { tx = pop a_stack } in
  Xt.commit { tx = enqueue a_queue x }
- : unit = ()

the transaction keeps on being blocked. But if both become populated at the same time

# Xt.commit { tx = push a_stack 4 }
- : unit = ()
# Domain.join a_domain
- : string = "I popped 4 and dequeued 2!"

the transaction can finish.

The retry mechanism essentially allows a transaction to wait for an arbitrary condition and can function as a fairly expressive communication and synchronization mechanism.

A transactional lock-free leftist heap

Let's implement something a bit more complicated, a leftist heap, which is a kind of priority queue.

First we define a data type to represent the spine of a leftist heap:

type 'v leftist =
  [ `Null
  | `Node of 'v leftist Loc.t
           * int Loc.t
           * 'v
           * 'v leftist Loc.t ]

To create a leftist heap we make a location with an empty spine:

# let leftist () : _ leftist Loc.t = Loc.make `Null
val leftist : unit -> 'a leftist Loc.t = <fun>

We then define an auxiliary function npl_of to get the null path length of a leftist heap:

# let npl_of ~xt : _ leftist -> int = function
    | `Null -> 0
    | `Node (_, npl, _, _) -> Xt.get ~xt npl
val npl_of : xt:'a Xt.t -> 'b leftist -> int = <fun>

The core operation of leftist heaps is that of merging two leftist heaps:

# let rec merge ~xt ~lt h1 h2 =
    match h1, h2 with
    | `Null, h2 -> h2
    | h1, `Null -> h1
    | (`Node (_, _, v1, _) as h1),
      (`Node (_, _, v2, _) as h2) ->
      let (`Node (h1l, npl, _, h1r) as h1), h2 =
        if lt v1 v2 then h1, h2 else h2, h1 in
      let l = Xt.get ~xt h1l in
      if l == `Null then
        Xt.set ~xt h1l h2
      else begin
        let r = merge ~xt ~lt (Xt.get ~xt h1r) h2 in
        match npl_of ~xt l, npl_of ~xt r with
        | l_npl, r_npl when l_npl < r_npl ->
          Xt.set ~xt h1l r;
          Xt.set ~xt h1r l;
          Xt.set ~xt npl (l_npl + 1)
        | _, r_npl ->
          Xt.set ~xt h1r r;
          Xt.set ~xt npl (r_npl + 1)
val merge :
  xt:'a Xt.t ->
  lt:('b -> 'b -> bool) -> 'b leftist -> 'b leftist -> 'b leftist = <fun>

The merge operation can be used to implement both insertion to

# let insert ~xt ~lt h x =
    let h1 = `Node (
        Loc.make `Null,
        Loc.make 1,
        Loc.make `Null
      ) in
    Xt.set ~xt h (merge ~xt ~lt h1 (Xt.get ~xt h))
val insert :
  xt:'a Xt.t -> lt:('b -> 'b -> bool) -> 'b leftist Loc.t -> 'b -> unit =

and deletion from

# let delete_min_opt ~xt ~lt h =
    match Xt.get ~xt h with
    | `Null -> None
    | `Node (h1, _, x, h2) ->
        Xt.set ~xt h
          (merge ~xt ~lt (Xt.get ~xt h1) (Xt.get ~xt h2));
        Some x
val delete_min_opt :
  xt:'a Xt.t -> lt:('b -> 'b -> bool) -> 'b leftist Loc.t -> 'b option =

a leftist heap.

Let's then first pick an ordering

# let lt = (>)
val lt : 'a -> 'a -> bool = <fun>

and create a leftist heap:

# let a_heap : int leftist Loc.t = leftist ()
val a_heap : int leftist Loc.t = <abstr>

To populate the heap we need to define a transaction passing function and pass it to commit:

# let tx ~xt =
    List.iter (insert ~xt ~lt a_heap) [3; 1; 4; 1; 5]
  Xt.commit { tx }
- : unit = ()

Notice that we could simply use List.iter from the Stdlib to iterate over a list of elements.

Let's then define a transaction passing function to remove all elements from a heap

# let remove_all ~xt ~lt h =
    let xs = ref [] in
    while match delete_min_opt ~xt ~lt h with
          | None -> false
          | Some x -> xs := x :: !xs; true do
    List.rev !xs
val remove_all :
  xt:'a Xt.t -> lt:('b -> 'b -> bool) -> 'b leftist Loc.t -> 'b list = <fun>

and use it

# Xt.commit { tx = remove_all ~lt a_heap }
- : int list = [5; 4; 3; 1; 1]

on the heap we populated earlier.

Notice how we were able to use a while loop, rather than recursion, in remove_all.

A composable Michael-Scott style queue

One of the most famous lock-free algorithms is the Michael-Scott queue. Perhaps its characteristic feature is that the tail pointer of the queue is allowed to momentarily fall behind and that operations on the queue perform cooperative CASes to update the tail. The tail pointer can be seen as an optimization — whether it points to the true tail or not does not change the logical state of the queue. Let's implement a composable queue that allows the tail to momentarily lag behind.

First we define a type for nodes:

type 'a node = Nil | Node of 'a * 'a node Loc.t

A queue is then a pair of pointers to the head and tail of a queue:

type 'a queue = {
  head : 'a node Loc.t Loc.t;
  tail : 'a node Loc.t Atomic.t

Note that we used an Atomic.t for the tail. We do not need to operate on the tail transactionally.

To create a queue we allocate a shared memory location for the pointer to the first node to be enqueued and make both the head and tail point to the location:

# let queue () =
    let next = Loc.make Nil in
    { head = Loc.make next; tail = Atomic.make next }
val queue : unit -> 'a queue = <fun>

To dequeue a node, only the head of the queue is examined. If the location pointed to by the head points to a node we update the head to point to the location pointing to the next node:

# let try_dequeue ~xt { head; _ } =
    let old_head = Xt.get ~xt head in
    match Xt.get ~xt old_head with
    | Nil -> None
    | Node (value, next) ->
      Xt.set ~xt head next;
      Some value
val try_dequeue : xt:'a Xt.t -> 'b queue -> 'b option = <fun>

To enqueue a value into the queue, only the tail of the queue needs to be examined. We allocate a new location for the new tail and a node. We then need to find the true tail of the queue and update it to point to the new node. The reason we need to find the true tail is that we explicitly allow the tail to momentarily fall behind. We then add a post commit action to the transaction to update the tail after the transaction has been successfully committed:

# let enqueue ~xt { tail; _ } value =
    let new_tail = Loc.make Nil in
    let new_node = Node (value, new_tail) in
    let rec find_and_set_tail old_tail =
      match Xt.compare_and_swap ~xt old_tail Nil new_node with
      | Nil -> ()
      | Node (_, old_tail) -> find_and_set_tail old_tail
    find_and_set_tail (Atomic.get tail);
    let rec fix_tail () =
      let old_tail = Atomic.get tail in
        Loc.get new_tail == Nil
        && not (Atomic.compare_and_set tail old_tail new_tail)
      then fix_tail ()
    Xt.post_commit ~xt fix_tail
val enqueue : xt:'a Xt.t -> 'b queue -> 'b -> unit = <fun>

The post commit action, registered using post_commit, checks that the tail is still the true tail and then attempts to update the tail. The order of accesses is very subtle as always with non-transactional atomic operations. Can you see why it works? Although we allow the tail to momentarily fall behind, it is important that we do not let the tail fall behind indefinitely, because then we would risk leaking memory — nodes that have been dequeued from the queue would still be pointed to by the tail.

Using the Michael-Scott style queue is as easy as any other transactional queue:

# let a_queue : int queue = queue ()
val a_queue : int queue = {head = <abstr>; tail = <abstr>}
# Xt.commit { tx = enqueue a_queue 19 }
- : unit = ()
# Xt.commit { tx = try_dequeue a_queue }
- : int option = Some 19
# Xt.commit { tx = try_dequeue a_queue }
- : int option = None

The queue implementation in this section is an example of using kcas to implement a fine-grained lock-free algorithm. Instead of recording all shared memory accesses and performing them atomically all at once, the implementation updates the tail outside of the transaction. This can potentially improve performance and scalability.

This sort of algorithm design requires careful reasoning. Consider the dequeue operation. Instead of recording the Xt.get ~xt old_head operation in the transaction log, one could propose to bypass the log as Loc.get old_head. That may seem like a valid optimization, because logging the update of the head in the transaction is sufficient to ensure that each transaction dequeues a unique node. Unfortunately that would change the semantics of the operation.

Suppose, for example, that you have two queues, A and B, and you must maintain the invariant that at least one of the queues is empty. One domain tries to dequeue from A and, if A was empty, enqueue to B. Another domain does the opposite, dequeue from B and enqueue to A (when B was empty). When such operations are performed in isolation, the invariant would be maintained. However, if the access of old_head is not recorded in the log, it is possible to end up with both A and B non-empty. This kind of race condition is common enough that it has been given a name: write skew. As an exercise, write out the sequence of atomic accesses that leads to that result.

Programming with primitive operations

The Op module is probably most suitable when using kcas as a means to design and implement new lock-free algorithms.

To program with primitive operations one simply makes a list of CAS operations using make_cas and then attempts them using atomically. Typically that needs to be done inside a loop of some kind as such an attempt can naturally fail.

Let's first make two locations representing stacks:

# let stack_a = Loc.make [19]
  and stack_b = Loc.make [76]
val stack_a : int list Loc.t = <abstr>
val stack_b : int list Loc.t = <abstr>

Here is a function that can atomically move an element from given source stack to the given target stack:

# let rec move ?(backoff = Backoff.default)
               target =
    match Loc.get source with
    | [] -> raise Exit
    | (elem::rest) as old_source ->
      let old_target = Loc.get target in
      let ops = [
        Op.make_cas source old_source rest;
        Op.make_cas target old_target (elem::old_target)
      ] in
      if not (Op.atomically ops) then
        let backoff = Backoff.once backoff in
        move ~backoff source target
val move : ?backoff:Backoff.t -> 'a list Loc.t -> 'a list Loc.t -> unit =

Note that we also used the Backoff module provided by kcas above.

Now we can simply call move:

# move stack_a stack_b
- : unit = ()
# Loc.get stack_a
- : int list = []
# Loc.get stack_b
- : int list = [19; 76]

As one can see, the API provided by Op is quite low-level and is not intended for application level programming.

Designing lock-free algorithms with k-CAS

The key benefit of k-CAS, or k-CAS-n-CMP, and transactions in particular, is that it allows developing lock-free algorithms compositionally. In the following sections we discuss a number of basic tips and approaches for making best use of k-CAS.

Minimize accesses

Accesses of shared memory locations inside transactions consult the transaction log. While the log is optimized, it still adds overhead. For best performance it can be advantageous to minimize the number of accesses.

Prefer compound accesses

For best performance it can be advantageous to use compound accesses such as update, exchange, and modify instead of get and set, because the compound accesses only consult the transaction log once.

Consider the following example that swaps the values of the shared memory locations a and b:

# let tx ~xt =
    let a_val = Xt.get ~xt a
    and b_val = Xt.get ~xt b in
    Xt.set ~xt a b_val;
    Xt.set ~xt b a_val
  Xt.commit { tx }
- : unit = ()

The above performs four accesses. Using exchange we can reduce that to three:

# let tx ~xt =
    let a_val = Xt.get ~xt a in
    let b_val = ~xt b a_val in
    Xt.set ~xt a b_val
  Xt.commit { tx }
- : unit = ()

The above will likely perform slightly better.

Log updates optimistically

Transactional write accesses to shared memory locations are only attempted after the transaction log construction finishes successfully. Therefore it is entirely safe to optimistically log updates against shared memory locations, validate them during the log construction, and abort the transaction in case validation fails.

Consider the following function to transfer an amount from specified source location to specified target location:

# let transfer amount ~source ~target =
    let tx ~xt =
      if amount <= Xt.get ~xt source then begin
        Xt.set ~xt source (Xt.get ~xt source - amount);
        Xt.set ~xt target (Xt.get ~xt target + amount)
    Xt.commit { tx }
val transfer : int -> source:int Loc.t -> target:int Loc.t -> unit = <fun>

The above first examine the source location and then updates both source and target. In a successful case it makes a total of five accesses. Using compound accesses and optimistic updates we can reduce that to just two accesses:

# let transfer amount ~source ~target =
    let tx ~xt =
      if Xt.fetch_and_add ~xt source (-amount) < amount then
        raise Exit;
      Xt.fetch_and_add ~xt target amount |> ignore
    try Xt.commit { tx } with Exit -> ()
val transfer : int -> source:int Loc.t -> target:int Loc.t -> unit = <fun>

Note that we raise the Stdlib Exit exception to abort the transaction. As we can see

# Loc.get a, Loc.get b
- : int * int = (10, 52)
# transfer 100 ~source:a ~target:b
- : unit = ()
# Loc.get a, Loc.get b
- : int * int = (10, 52)
# transfer 10 ~source:a ~target:b
- : unit = ()
# Loc.get a, Loc.get b
- : int * int = (0, 62)

the updates are only done in case of success.

A problem with the transfer function above is that it is not a composable transaction. The transaction mechanism provided by kcas does not implicitly perform rollbacks of changes made to locations, but it does offer low level support for nested conditional transactions.

By explicitly calling snapshot and rollback one can scope tentative changes and create a composable version of transfer:

# let transfer ~xt amount ~source ~target =
    let snap = Xt.snapshot ~xt in
    if Xt.fetch_and_add ~xt source (-amount) < amount then
      Retry.later (Xt.rollback ~xt snap);
    Xt.fetch_and_add ~xt target amount |> ignore
val transfer :
  xt:'a Xt.t -> int -> source:int Loc.t -> target:int Loc.t -> unit = <fun>

Given a bunch of locations

let a = Loc.make 10
and b = Loc.make 20
and c = Loc.make 30
and d = Loc.make 27

we can now attempt transfers and perform the first of them that succeeds:

# Xt.commit {
    tx = Xt.first [
      transfer 15 ~source:a ~target:d;
      transfer 15 ~source:b ~target:d;
      transfer 15 ~source:c ~target:d;
- : unit = ()

A look at the locations

# Loc.get [a; b; c; d]
- : int list = [10; 5; 30; 42]

confirms the expected result.


The more time a transaction takes, the more likely it is to suffer from interference or even starvation. For best performance it is important to keep transactions as short as possible. In particular, when possible, perform expensive computations after the transactions.

Consider the following example of computing the size of a stack:

# let a_stack = Loc.make [2; 3]
val a_stack : int list Loc.t = <abstr>
# let n_elems =
    let tx ~xt =
      Xt.get ~xt a_stack
      |> List.length
    Xt.commit { tx }
val n_elems : int = 2

The problem is that the computation of the list length is potentially expensive and opens a potentially long time window for other domains to interfere.

In this case we can trivially move the list length computation outside of the transaction:

# let n_elems =
    Xt.commit { tx = Xt.get a_stack }
    |> List.length
val n_elems : int = 2

As a more general approach, one could e.g. use closures to move compute after transactions:

# let n_elems =
    let tx ~xt =
      let xs = Xt.get ~xt a_stack in
      fun () -> List.length xs
    Xt.commit { tx } ()
val n_elems : int = 2

Race to cooperate

Sometimes it is necessary to perform slower transactions that access many shared memory locations or need to perform expensive computations during the transaction. As mentioned previously, such transactions are more likely to suffer from interference or even starvation as other transactions race to make conflicting mutations to shared memory locations. To avoid such problems, it is often possible to split the transaction into two:

  1. A quick transaction that adversarially races against others.

  2. A slower transaction that others will then cooperate to complete.

This lock-free algorithm design technique and the examples in the following subsections are more advanced than the basic techniques described previously. To understand and reason about these examples it is necessary to have a good understanding of how transactions work.

Understanding transactions

We have previously casually talked about "transactions". Let's sharpen our understanding of transactions.

In kcas, a transaction is essentially a function that can be called to prepare a specification of an operation or operations, in the form of a transaction log, that can then be attempted to be performed atomically by the underlying k-CAS-n-CMP algorithm provided by kcas.

In other words, and simplifying a bit, when an explicit attempt is made to perform a transaction, it basically proceeds in phases:

  1. The first phase records a log of operations to access shared memory locations.

  2. The second phase attempts to perform the operations atomically.

Either of the phases may fail. The first phase, which is under the control of the transaction function, may raise an exception to abort the attempt. The second phase fails when the accesses recorded in the transaction log are found to be inconsistent with the contents of the shared memory locations. That happens when the shared memory locations are mutated outside of the accesses specified in the transaction log regardless of who made those mutations.

A transaction is not itself atomic and the construction of a transaction log, by recording accesses of shared memory locations to the log, does not logically mutate any shared memory locations.

When a transaction is (unconditionally) committed, rather than merely attempted (once), the commit mechanism keeps on retrying until an attempt succeeds or the transaction function raises an exception (other than Later or Interference) that the commit mechanism does not handle.

Each attempt or retry calls the transaction function again. This means that any side-effects within the transaction function are also performed again.

In previous sections we have used transactions as a coarse-grained mechanism to encompass all shared memory accesses of the algorithm being implemented. This makes it easy to reason about the effects of committing a transaction as the accesses are then all performed as a single atomic operation. In the following examples we will use our deeper understanding of transactions to implement more fine-grained algorithms.

A three-stack lock-free queue

Recall the two-stack queue discussed earlier. The problem is that the try_dequeue operation reverses the back of the queue and that can be relatively expensive. One way to avoid that problem is to introduce a third "middle" stack, or shared memory location, to the queue and quickly move the back to the middle stack.

First we redefine the queue type to include a middle location:

type 'a queue = {
  back : 'a list Loc.t;
  middle : 'a list Loc.t;
  front : 'a list Loc.t

And adjust the queue constructor function accordingly:

# let queue () =
    let back = Loc.make []
    and middle = Loc.make []
    and front = Loc.make [] in
    { back; middle; front }
val queue : unit -> 'a queue = <fun>

The enqueue operation remains essentially the same:

# let enqueue ~xt queue elem =
    Xt.modify ~xt queue.back @@ List.cons elem
val enqueue : xt:'a Xt.t -> 'b queue -> 'b -> unit = <fun>

For the quick transaction we introduce a helper function:

# let back_to_middle queue =
    let tx ~xt =
      match ~xt queue.back [] with
      | [] -> raise Exit
      | xs ->
        if ~xt queue.middle xs != [] then
          raise Exit
    try Xt.commit { tx } with Exit -> ()
val back_to_middle : 'a queue -> unit = <fun>

Note that the above uses exchange to optimistically record shared memory accesses and then uses the Exit exception to abort the transaction in case the optimistic accesses turn out to be unnecessary or incorrect.

The dequeue operation then runs the quick transaction to move elements from the back to the middle before examining the middle:

# let dequeue ~xt queue =
    match Xt.update ~xt queue.front tl_safe with
    | x :: _ -> Some x
    | [] ->
      if not (Xt.is_in_log ~xt queue.middle ||
              Xt.is_in_log ~xt queue.back) then
        back_to_middle queue;
      match ~xt queue.middle [] |> List.rev with
      | x :: xs ->
        Xt.set ~xt queue.front xs;
        Some x
      | [] ->
        match ~xt queue.back [] |> List.rev with
        | x :: xs ->
          Xt.set ~xt queue.front xs;
          Some x
        | [] -> None
val dequeue : xt:'a Xt.t -> 'b queue -> 'b option = <fun>

There are a number of subtle implementation details above that deserve attention.

First of all, notice that dequeue only calls back_to_middle queue after making sure that queue.middle and queue.back have not already been accessed using is_in_log. If the call back_to_middle queue would be made after accessing queue.middle or queue.back, then those accesses would be recorded in the transaction log xt and the log would be inconsistent after back_to_middle queue mutates the locations. This would cause the transaction attempt to fail and we want to avoid such doomed attempts.

Another subtle, but important, detail is that despite calling back_to_middle queue to move queue.back to queue.middle, it would be incorrect to assume that queue.back would be empty or that queue.middle would be non-empty. That is because we must assume other domains may be performing operations on the queue simultaneously. Another domain may have pushed new elements to the queue.back or emptied queue.middle. Therefore we meticulously examine both queue.middle and queue.back, if necessary. If we don't do that, then it is possible that we incorrectly report the queue as being empty.

Also, as should be clear, the side-effect performed by calling back_to_middle queue is committed immediately every time it is called regardless of the outcome of the transaction attempt. This is safe, because back_to_middle queue does not logically change the state of the queue. It merely performs a helping step, that is invisible to outside observers, towards advancing the internal state of the queue. This is a common pattern in lock-free algorithms.

As subtle as these kinds of lock-free algorithms are, this approach avoids the potential starvation problems as now consumers do not attempt a slow transaction to race against producers. Rather, the consumers perform quick adversarial races against producers and then cooperatively race to complete the slow transaction.

A rehashable lock-free hash table

The previous example of adding a middle stack to the queue may seem like a special case. Let's implement a simple lock-free hash table and, along the way, examine a simple general way to replace a slow transaction with a quick adversarial transaction and a slow cooperative transaction.

The difficulty with hash tables is rehashing. Let's ignore that for now and implement a hash table without rehashing. For further simplicity, let's just use separate chaining. Here is a type for such a basic hash table:

type ('k, 'v) basic_hashtbl = {
  size: int Loc.t;
  data: ('k * 'v Loc.t) list Loc.t array Loc.t

The basic hash table constructor just allocates all the locations:

# let basic_hashtbl () = {
    size = Loc.make 0;
    data = Loc.make (Loc.make_array 4 [])
val basic_hashtbl : unit -> ('a, 'b) basic_hashtbl = <fun>

Note that we (intentionally) used a very small capacity for the data table. In a real implementation you'd probably want to have a bigger minimum capacity (and might e.g. want to use a prime number).

Before tackling the basic operations, let's implement a helper function for accessing the association list location corresponding to specified key:

# let access ~xt basic_hashtbl key =
    let data = Xt.get ~xt in
    let n = Array.length data in
    let i = Hashtbl.hash key mod n in
val access :
  xt:'a Xt.t -> ('b, 'c) basic_hashtbl -> 'd -> ('b * 'c Loc.t) list Loc.t =

Now, to find an element, we access the association list and try to find the key-value -pair:

# let find ~xt hashtbl key =
    let assoc_loc = access ~xt hashtbl key in
    Xt.get ~xt (List.assoc key (Xt.get ~xt assoc_loc))
val find : xt:'a Xt.t -> ('b, 'c) basic_hashtbl -> 'b -> 'c = <fun>

When replacing (or adding) the value corresponding to a key, we need to take care to update the size when necessary:

# let replace ~xt hashtbl key value =
    let assoc_loc = access ~xt hashtbl key in
    let assoc = Xt.get ~xt assoc_loc in
      let value_loc = List.assoc key assoc in
      Xt.set ~xt value_loc value
    with Not_found ->
      Xt.set ~xt assoc_loc ((key, Loc.make value) :: assoc);
      Xt.incr ~xt hashtbl.size
val replace : xt:'a Xt.t -> ('b, 'c) basic_hashtbl -> 'b -> 'c -> unit =

Removing an association also involves making sure that the size is updated correctly:

# let remove ~xt hashtbl key =
    let assoc_loc = access ~xt hashtbl key in
    let rec loop ys = function
      | ((key', _) as y) :: xs ->
        if key <> key' then
          loop (y :: ys) xs
        else begin
          Xt.set ~xt assoc_loc (List.rev_append ys xs);
          Xt.decr ~xt hashtbl.size
      | [] -> ()
    loop [] (Xt.get ~xt assoc_loc)
val remove : xt:'a Xt.t -> ('b, 'c) basic_hashtbl -> 'b -> unit = <fun>

Now, the problem with the above is the lack of rehashing. As more associations are added, performance deteriorates. We could implement a naive rehashing operation:

# let rehash ~xt hashtbl new_capacity =
    let new_data = Loc.make_array new_capacity [] in ~xt new_data
    |> Array.iter @@ fun assoc_loc ->
       Xt.get ~xt assoc_loc
       |> List.iter @@ fun ((key, _) as bucket) ->
          let i = Hashtbl.hash key mod new_capacity in
          Xt.modify ~xt new_data.(i) (List.cons bucket)
val rehash : xt:'a Xt.t -> ('b, 'c) basic_hashtbl -> int -> unit = <fun>

But that involves reading all the bucket locations. Any mutation that adds or removes an association would cause such a rehash to fail.

To avoid taking on such adversarial races, we can use a level of indirection:

type ('k, 'v) hashtbl = {
  pending: [`Nothing | `Rehash of int] Loc.t;
  basic: ('k, 'v) basic_hashtbl

The idea is that a hash table is either considered to be normally accessible or in the middle of being rehashed. It is easy to use this approach even when there are many different slow operations.

Finding an element does not require mutating any locations, so we might just as well allow those also during rehashes:

# let find ~xt hashtbl key = find ~xt hashtbl.basic key
val find : xt:'a Xt.t -> ('b, 'c) hashtbl -> 'b -> 'c = <fun>

Then we use a similar trick as with the three-stack queue. We use a quick adversarial transaction to switch a hash table to the rehashing state in case a rehash seems necessary:

# let prepare_rehash ~xt hashtbl delta =
    let tx ~xt =
      match Xt.get ~xt hashtbl.pending with
      | `Rehash _ -> ()
      | `Nothing ->
        let size =
          Int.max 1 (Xt.get ~xt hashtbl.basic.size + delta)
        and capacity =
          Array.length (Xt.get ~xt
        if capacity < size * 4 then
          Xt.set ~xt hashtbl.pending (`Rehash (capacity * 2))
        else if size * 8 < capacity then
          Xt.set ~xt hashtbl.pending (`Rehash (capacity / 2))
          raise Exit
      if Xt.is_in_log ~xt hashtbl.pending then
        tx ~xt
        Xt.commit { tx }
    with Exit -> ()
val prepare_rehash : xt:'a Xt.t -> ('b, 'c) hashtbl -> int -> unit = <fun>

Note again that while the rehash logic allows some slack in the capacity, a real implementation would likely use a bigger minimum capacity and perhaps avoid using powers of two. Also, if we have already modified the hash table, which we know by using is_in_log to check whether the pending location has been accessed, we must continue within the same transaction.

Before we mutate a hash table, we will then call a helper to check whether we need to rehash:

# let maybe_rehash ~xt hashtbl delta =
    prepare_rehash ~xt hashtbl delta;
    match Xt.get ~xt hashtbl.pending with
    | `Nothing -> ()
    | `Rehash new_capacity ->
      Xt.set ~xt hashtbl.pending `Nothing;
      rehash ~xt hashtbl.basic new_capacity
val maybe_rehash : xt:'a Xt.t -> ('b, 'c) hashtbl -> int -> unit = <fun>

Similarly to the previous example of a three-stack queue, a subtle, but important detail is that the call to prepare_rehash is made before accessing hashtbl.pending. This way the transaction log is not poisoned and there is chance for the operation to succeed on the first attempt.

After switching to the rehashing state, all mutators will then cooperatively race to perform the rehash.

We can now just implement the replace

# let replace ~xt hashtbl key value =
    maybe_rehash ~xt hashtbl (+1);
    replace ~xt hashtbl.basic key value
val replace : xt:'a Xt.t -> ('b, 'c) hashtbl -> 'b -> 'c -> unit = <fun>

and remove

# let remove ~xt hashtbl key =
    maybe_rehash ~xt hashtbl (-1);
    remove ~xt hashtbl.basic key
val remove : xt:'a Xt.t -> ('b, 'c) hashtbl -> 'b -> unit = <fun>

operations with rehashing.

After creating a constructor function

# let hashtbl () = {
    pending = Loc.make `Nothing;
    basic = basic_hashtbl ()
val hashtbl : unit -> ('a, 'b) hashtbl = <fun>

for hash tables, we are ready to take it out for a spin:

# let a_hashtbl : (string, int) hashtbl = hashtbl ()
val a_hashtbl : (string, int) hashtbl =
  {pending = <abstr>; basic = {size = <abstr>; data = <abstr>}}
# let assoc = [
    ("Intro", 101);
    ("Answer", 42);
    ("OCaml", 5);
    ("Year", 2023)
val assoc : (string * int) list =
  [("Intro", 101); ("Answer", 42); ("OCaml", 5); ("Year", 2023)]
# assoc
  |> List.iter @@ fun (key, value) ->
     Xt.commit { tx = replace a_hashtbl key value }
- : unit = ()
# assoc
  |> List.iter @@ fun (key, _) ->
     Xt.commit { tx = remove a_hashtbl key }
- : unit = ()

What we have here is a lock-free hash table with rehashing that should not be highly prone to starvation. In other respects this is a fairly naive hash table implementation. You might want to think about various ways to improve upon it.

Beware of torn reads

The algorithm underlying kcas ensures that it is not possible to read uncommitted changes to shared memory locations and that an operation can only complete successfully if all of the accesses taken together were atomic. These are very strong guarantees and make it much easier to implement correct concurrent algorithms.

Unfortunately, the transaction mechanism that kcas provides does not prevent one specific concurrency anomaly. When reading multiple locations, it is possible for a transaction to observe different locations at different times even though it is not possible for the transaction to commit successfully unless all the accesses together were atomic.

Let's examine this phenomena. To see the anomaly, we need to have two or more locations. Let's just create two locations a and b:

# let a = Loc.make 0 and b = Loc.make 0
val a : int Loc.t = <abstr>
val b : int Loc.t = <abstr>

And create a helper that spawns a domain that repeatedly increments a and decrements b in a transaction:

# let with_updater fn =
    let stop = ref false in
    let domain = Domain.spawn @@ fun () ->
      while not !stop do
        let tx ~xt =
          Xt.incr ~xt a;
          Xt.decr ~xt b
        Xt.commit { tx }
      done in
    let finally () =
      stop := true;
      Domain.join domain in
    Fun.protect ~finally fn
val with_updater : (unit -> 'a) -> 'a = <fun>

The sum of the values of a and b must always be zero. We can verify this using a transaction:

# with_updater @@ fun () ->
    for _ = 1 to 1_000 do
      let tx ~xt =
        0 = Xt.get ~xt a + Xt.get ~xt b
      if not (Xt.commit { tx }) then
        failwith "read skew"
    "no read skew"
- : string = "no read skew"

Nice! So, it appears everything works as expected. A transaction can only commit after having read a consistent, atomic, snapshot of all the shared memory locations.

Unfortunately within a transaction attempt things are not as simple. Let's do an experiment where we abort the transaction in case we observe that the values of a and b are inconsistent:

# with_updater @@ fun () ->
    for _ = 1 to 1_000 do
      let tx ~xt =
        if 0 <> Xt.get ~xt a + Xt.get ~xt b then
          failwith "read skew"
      Xt.commit { tx }
    "no read skew"
Exception: Failure "read skew".

Oops! So, within a transaction we may actually observe different locations having values from different committed transactions. This is something that needs to be kept in mind when writing transactions.

To mitigate issues due to read skew and to also avoid problems with long running transactions, the kcas transaction mechanism automatically validates the transaction log periodically when an access is made to the transaction log. Therefore an important guideline for writing transactions is that loops inside a transaction should always include an access of some shared memory location through the transaction log or should otherwise be guaranteed to be bounded.

In addition to the automatic periodic validation, one can also explicitly validate, after reading some locations, that the locations have not been modified outside of the transaction:

# with_updater @@ fun () ->
    for _ = 1 to 1_000 do
      let tx ~xt =
        let a' = Xt.get ~xt a in
        let b' = Xt.get ~xt b in
        Xt.validate ~xt a;
        if 0 <> a' + b' then
          failwith "read skew"
      Xt.commit { tx }
    "no read skew"
- : string = "no read skew"

Notice that above we only validated the access of a, because we know that a and b are always updated atomically and we read b after reading a. In this case that is enough to ensure that read skew is not possible.

Scheduler interop

The blocking mechanism in kcas is based on a domain local await mechanism that schedulers can choose to implement to allow libraries like kcas to work with them.

Implementing schedulers is not really what casual users of kcas are supposed to do. Below is an example of a toy scheduler whose purpose is only to give a sketch of how a scheduler can provide the domain local await mechanism.

Let's also demonstrate the use of the Queue, Stack, and Promise implementations that are conveniently provided by the kcas_data package.

# #require "kcas_data"
# open Kcas_data

Here is the full toy scheduler module:

module Scheduler : sig
  type t
  val spawn : unit -> t
  val join : t -> unit
  val fiber : t -> (unit -> 'a) -> 'a Promise.t
end = struct
  open Effect.Deep

  type _ Effect.t +=
    | Suspend : (('a, unit) continuation -> unit) -> 'a Effect.t

  type t = {
    queue: (unit -> unit) Queue.t;
    domain: unit Domain.t

  let spawn () =
    let queue = Queue.create () in
    let rec scheduler work =
      let effc (type a) : a Effect.t -> _ = function
        | Suspend ef -> Some ef
        | _ -> None in
      try_with work () { effc };
      match Queue.take_opt queue with
      | Some work -> scheduler work
      | None -> () in
    let prepare_for_await _ =
      let state = Atomic.make `Init in
      let release () =
        if Atomic.get state != `Released then
          match state `Released with
          | `Awaiting k ->
            Queue.add (continue k) queue
          | _ -> () in
      let await () =
        if Atomic.get state != `Released then
          Effect.perform @@ Suspend (fun k ->
            if not (Atomic.compare_and_set state `Init
                      (`Awaiting k)) then
              continue k ())
      Domain_local_await.{ release; await } in
    let domain = Domain.spawn @@ fun () ->
        while true do
          let work = Queue.take_blocking queue in
            ~while_running:(fun () -> scheduler work)
      with Exit -> () in
    { queue; domain }

  let join t =
    Queue.add (fun () -> raise Exit) t.queue;
    Domain.join t.domain

  let fiber t thunk =
    let (promise, resolver) = Promise.create () in
      (fun () -> Promise.resolve resolver (thunk ()))

The idea is that one can spawn a scheduler to run on a new domain. Then one can run fibers on the scheduler. Because the scheduler provides the domain local await mechanism libraries like kcas can use it to block in a scheduler independent and friendly manner.

Let's then demonstate the integration. To start we spawn a scheduler:

# let scheduler = Scheduler.spawn ()
val scheduler : Scheduler.t = <abstr>

The scheduler is now eagerly awaiting for fibers to run. Let's give it a couple of them, but, let's first create a queue and a stack to communicate with the fibers:

# let in_queue : int Queue.t = Queue.create ()
val in_queue : int Kcas_data.Queue.t = <abstr>
# let out_stack : int Stack.t = Stack.create ()
val out_stack : int Kcas_data.Stack.t = <abstr>

The first fiber we create just copies elements from the in_queue to the out_stack:

# ignore @@ Scheduler.fiber scheduler @@ fun () ->
    while true do
      let elem = Queue.take_blocking in_queue in
      Printf.printf "Giving %d...\n%!" elem;
      Stack.push elem out_stack
- : unit = ()

The second fiber awaits to take two elements from the out_stack, updates a state in between, and then returns their sum:

# let state = Loc.make 0
val state : int Loc.t = <abstr>
# let sync_to target =
    |> Loc.get_as @@ fun current ->
       Retry.unless (target <= current)
val sync_to : int -> unit = <fun>
# let a_promise = Scheduler.fiber scheduler @@ fun () ->
    let x = Stack.pop_blocking out_stack in
    Printf.printf "First you gave me %d.\n%!" x;
    Loc.set state 1;
    let y = Stack.pop_blocking out_stack in
    Printf.printf "Then you gave me %d.\n%!" y;
    Loc.set state 2;
    x + y
val a_promise : int Promise.t = <abstr>

To interact with the fibers, we add some elements to the in_queue:

# Queue.add 14 in_queue; sync_to 1
Giving 14...
First you gave me 14.
- : unit = ()
# Queue.add 28 in_queue; sync_to 2
Giving 28...
Then you gave me 28.
- : unit = ()
# Promise.await a_promise
- : int = 42

As can be seen above, the scheduler multiplexes the domain among the fibers. Notice that thanks to the domain local await mechanism we could just perform blocking operations without thinking about the schedulers. Communication between the main domain, the scheduler domain, and the fibers just works ™.

Time to close the shop.

# Scheduler.join scheduler
- : unit = ()

That's all Folks!



This project uses ocamlformat (for OCaml) and prettier (for Markdown).

To make a new release

  1. Update

  2. Run dune-release tag VERSION to create a tag for the new VERSION.

  3. Run dune-release to publish the new VERSION.

  4. Run ./update-gh-pages-for-tag VERSION to update the online documentation.

Dependencies (3)

  1. domain-local-await >= "0.1.0"
  2. ocaml >= "5.0"
  3. dune >= "3.3"

Dev Dependencies (2)

  1. odoc with-doc
  2. mdx >= "1.10.0" & with-test

Used by (4)

  1. domainslib >= "0.5.1"
  2. eio_main >= "0.10"
  3. eio_windows
  4. kcas_data = "0.5.1"




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